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Urban worlds, territories and borders

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Research area 2: Urban worlds, territories and borders

Led by: C. Henriot and S. Corcuff

Faculty and staff attached primarily to research area 2:

Aubrun, Charlotte, Analyst in Social Sciences, CNRS (ANR contract)
Cornet, Christine, Professor in Modern History (U. of Lyon 2)
Feng Yi, Analyst in Social Sciences, CNRS
Gédéon, Laurent, associate professor in Geography (U. C. Lyon)
Guillemot, François, Research engineer (CNRS)
Henriot, Christian, Professor in Modern History (U. of Lyon 2)
Peyvel, Emmanuelle, associate professor in Geography (U. of Brest)
Senna, Estelle, Analyst in Social Sciences, CNRS

LIEAS research scholars associated secondarily with research area 2 (main research area in brackets):

Bassino, Jean-Pascal (research area 3)
Faure, Guy (research area 3)
Shi Lu (research area 3)

Post-doctoral and associate research scholars:

Corcuff, Stéphane, Associate professor in Political Science (IEP de Lyon)
Goscha, Christopher, Professor in Contemporary History (U. of Quebec, Montreal)
Pholsena, Vatthana, Research fellow at CNRS (section 33, on secondment to the IRASEC-Singapore, until December 31, 2012)

Research projects in progress:

- “War made Shanghai” : Toward a spatial history of 19th-20th century Shanghai (1842-1952)

Funding: Agence nationale de la Recherche (ANR)
Amount: 200,000€
Period : 36 months (2013-2016)
Project led by:C. Henriot

Wars have a tremendous impact on territories and their populations. Many cities were, at one point in their history, subjected to the grueling consequences of warfare. Some have suffered repeated assaults, successive cycles of destruction and reconstruction, displacement of population, and as a consequence, a remolding of their environment. Yet only a few large modern metropolis have gone through such cycles of sudden and thorough destruction, followed by periods of more or less rapid reconstruction, involving a massive regeneration of their populations. In this project, we plan to demonstrate that Shanghai represents an exceptional – though unfortunate — case of an urban space that from the mid- 19th century to the late 1940s was engulfed in several conflicts. The city can also claim the sad record of having been the first city in the world to be exposed to and ravaged by the most modern weaponry and to have suffered from heretofore unknown levels of violence. The history of Shanghai has been told from the angle of modernization, westernization, and astounding economic development. In other words, Shanghai appears in most narratives as a « success story ». A success indeed it was. And precisely, an even more astonishing success when one looks closely at the history of warfare and violence in the city. In this project, we argue that the development of Shanghai as an urban territory was conditioned by issues of defense and conflict. Shanghai thrived and prospered out of war. From the initial military foray and brief occupation by British troops in 1842 to the civil war (1945-49) and its ripples in post-war China, all through the civil rebellions (1853-55, 1860-61), revolutionary movements (1911, 1925-1927), and Sino-Japanese conflicts (1932, 1937), the city was the seat of forms of violence that affected both the spatial configuration, the distribution, composition and activities of the population, and the whole economic structure. This project proposes to explore the history of war and civilian violence in Shanghai over a long century (1842-1952) from the perspective of the spatial history and seeks to establish the determinants and modes of transformation the city that resulted from warfare. It sits at the interface of history and geography. The methodological approach to be adopted fits in the realm of "digital humanities", in particular digital history. It requires the collection and processing of both large amounts of quantitative and qualitative data, hence a four-year proposal, and the design and implementation of innovative instruments for historical research.

- “Cadastres, land management and urban change in Shanghai : spatial and temporal visualization of heterogeneous series"

Funding: Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange
Amount: 75,000€
Period: 36 months (2014-2017)
Project led by: C. Henriot

- “Spaces of leisure : From newspapers advertisements to « lived » and « perceived » space"

Funding: Région Rhône-Alpes - Coopéra
Amount: 24,000€
Period: 24 months (2014-2016)
Project led by: C. Henriot

The proposed two-year program intends to establish an innovative approach to the processing of historical data from the extraction of basic units of information spread across a wide range of primary materials, to their compilation in database format, to their visualization through cutting-edge technology. It is based on the large collection of a textual data culled from four major Shanghai newspapers over a period of sixty years (1907-1966). The main corpora are the advertisements published by entertainment establishments in these newspapers. Aside from integrating these data into GIS server and web mapping, we plan to design new tools to exploit the potential of this wealth of data, especially in two main directions, visual narratives, and dynamic GIS.

- “Cities in turmoil” : Historical GIS and urban life in four Chinese cities in the late Qing and Republican period

Funding: Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange
Amount: €60,000
Period: 24 months (2010-2012)
Project led by: C. Henriot

This project explores different sets of issues in four cities – Shanghai, Beijing, Suzhou, Hankou – from the perspective of spatial history. These cities experienced periods of destabilization in varying degrees and had to adjust to changing circumstances during the Republican period : material configurations of everyday life, spatial “innovation”, collective spaces and their usage, and catastrophes in urban settings. We use GIS to process both quantitative and qualitative data to make our sources “speak to us” in a way for which there is hardly an alternative method.

- Cadastres, land management and urban change : spatial and temporal geointegration of heterogeneous series

Funding: Région Rhône-Alpes - Coopéra
Amount: €23,000
Period: 12 months (2012-2013)
Project led by: C. Henriot

This project proposes to explore the urban transformation of Shanghai through the study of land management and cadastres over a century (1849-1949). We seek to establish the modes of development of the city with a focus on the relationships between human and nature, real-estate owners and the municipal authorities. In methodological terms, the project fits into the realm of spatial history, with an emphasis on geovisualization and the use of GIS.

- CMIRA Virtual Saigon

Funding: Rhône-Alpes Region – CMIRA
Amount: €9,000€
Period: 18 months (2010-2012)
Project led by: L. Gédéon

Virtual Saigon est une plateforme collaborative de cartographie interactive dédiée à l’étude de Saigon HCMV en faisant appel aux matériaux visuels et cartographiques. Elle a pour objectif de rassembler et d’exploiter les différents corpus disponibles sur cette ville par l’identification, la collecte, le traitement des données. Deux objectifs sont poursuivis : la spatialisation de l’évolution du développement historique, social et urbain de la ville et la création de parcours visuels dans la perspective des Digital humanities.

Institut Universitaire de France (2007-2012) )

Senior fellow: C. Henriot

This research program followed two parallel directions: A Social History of Death in Shanghai mid-19th century cultural revolution. This work translated among other things into a research monograph soon to be completed. The second direction was the development of a digital platform for research on Shanghai (http://virtualshanghai.net) and its transformation into a generic tool for research in urban history (http://virtualcities.fr)).

- History of Shanghai and digital humanities

Funding: Région Rhône-Alpes - Explora
Amount: 14,910€
Period: 18 months (2010-2012)
Project led by: C. Henriot

The objective of this collaboration was to develop new research and training in the new technologies applied to history in the Department of History of East China Normal University. The main purpose was to train a group of young researchers around the theme "History of leisure" in Shanghai under the Republic, testing our methods on the heterogeneous nature of the material gathered for this project.

- The Spatial Dynamics of Foreigners’ Real Estate in Shanghai (1849-1911)

Funding: Rhône-Alpes Region - Post-doctorat research (Dr. MOU Zhenyu) -Amount: €35,000
Period: 12 months (2011-2012)
Project led by: Mou Zhenyu - C. Henriot

In this project we apply GIS to the spatial, quantitative, and qualitative data contained in the Shanghai land deeds to reconstruct the spatial dynamics of real estate and to explore the ways in which urban space changed under the influences dictated by the the expansion of real estate, and the role played by landowners in this process. We focus on the period from 1843 to 1911, since we can rely on a complete set of sources on the real estate of the foreigners who were the prime movers during the period under study.

- The city in a time of war: a geospatial approach to Shanghai’s industries (1935-1947)

Funding: Rhône-Alpes Region - (Cible???)
Amount: €20,000 + an allocation under doctoral contract
Period: 12 months (2010-2011) [Contract : 2010-2013]
Project led by: C. Henriot

Shanghai was exposed to a major transformation due to the war that engulfed the city from the summer of 1937 for a period of eight years. Through the systematic processing of spatial qualitative and quantitative data, we plan to examine the impact of war on the use of space in the city, the transformation of production areas and different social practices in Shanghai between 1935 and 1947 .

- iVS : Immersive Virtual Shanghai

Funding: Rhône-Alpes Region - Lyon University
Amount: €20,000
Period: 4 months (2010) - Continuation of the ongoing project.
Project led by: C. Henriot - G. Foliot

IVS is a virtual reality application used to navigate and interact with the the set of images and maps of Virtual Shanghai in a 3D environment. iVS is designed as an immersive environment where the subject was at the heart of the 3D space designed as a CAVE. The iVS application includes two "worlds": the so-called "urban model" and one called "image dynamic classification."

Recent publications and communications in conferences (since 2010): See HAL-SHS

PhD Students:

Armand, Cécile, PhD Student in contemporary history, « La genèse de la publicité modern à Shanghai (du milieu du 19e au milieu du 20e siècle) »

Chabaille, Fleur, PhD Student in contemporary history, « La concession française de Tianjin de 1916 à 1946 »

Jiang, Jie (蒋杰), PhD Student in contemporary history, « La criminalité à Shanghai sous l’occupation japonaise (1937-1945) ».

Liu, Zhe (刘喆), PhD Student in contemporary history, « Le monde de l’édition à Shanghai après 1949 : le cas de la bande dessinée ».

Yin, Ming (尹明), PhD Student in political science, « Diaspora ou groupe ethnique ? Approche critique du « phénomène waishengren » à Taiwan de 1945 à nos jours ».

Sung, Tzu-Hsuan (宋子玄), Ph.D candidate in contemporary history, « Histoire de la beauté et des cosmétiques en Chine au 20e siècle (1900-1949) ».

Xu, Chong (徐翀), PhD Student in contemporary history, « La construction d’une administration de sécurité : défense et maintien de l’ordre public dans la Concession française de Shanghai (1849- années 1920) »